Linux-PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux)是一套供管理员选择的用来验证应用程序用户的共享库,它把权限控制与应用程序分离,你可以随意更改认证方式而不需要重新编译程序,具有很好的灵活性和课拓展性。


  • 模块文件:/lib/security/*
  • 模块配置文件:/etc/security/*
  • PAM配置文件:/etc/pam.conf和/etc/pam.d/*
  • 一些PAM相关命令如pam-auth-update等


  | application: X |
  +----------------+       /  +----------+     +================+
  | authentication-[---->--\--] Linux-   |--<--| PAM config file|
  |       +        [----<--/--]   PAM    |     |================|
  |[conversation()][--+    \  |          |     | X auth .. a.so |
  +----------------+  |    /  +-n--n-----+     | X auth .. b.so |
  |                |  |       __|  |           |           _____/
  |  service user  |  A      |     |           |____,-----
  |                |  |      V     A
  +----------------+  +------|-----|---------+ -----+------+
                         +---u-----u----+    |      |      |
                         |   auth....   |--[ a ]--[ b ]--[ c ]
                         |   acct....   |--[ b ]--[ d ]
                         |   password   |--[ b ]--[ c ]
                         |   session    |--[ e ]--[ c ]

图的左边表示一个应用程序:X. 这应用程序有和Linux-PAM 库的接口并且在认证方面没有什么特别之处. Linux-PAM 函数库 (图的中部) 查询PAM配置文件的内容并且装入适用于程序 X 的模块. 这些模块进入四个管理组( 图的中下部)中的一个,并且以它们出现在配置文件中的顺序堆叠起来 . 这些模组由Linux-PAM呼叫后,为应用程序执行不同的认证工作 . 需要用户提供或提供给用户的文本信息,可以通过使用应用程序提供的conversation函数来交换.



 Simply put, these groups take care of different aspects of a typical user´s request for a restricted service: account - provide account verification types of service: has the user´s password expired?; is this user permitted access to the requested service? authentication - authenticate a user and set up user credentials. Typically this is via some challenge-response request that theuser must satisfy: if you are who you claim to be please enter your password. Not all authentications are of this type, there exist,hardwarebased authentication schemes (such as the use of smart-cards and biometric devices), with suitable modules, these may be substituted seamlessly for more standard approaches to authentication - such is the flexibility of Linux-PAM. password - this group´s responsibility is the task of updating authentication mechanisms. Typically, such services are strongly coupled to those of the auth group. Some authentication mechanisms lend themselves well to being updated with such a function. Standard UN\*X password-based access is the obvious example: please enter a replacement password. session - this group of tasks cover things that should be done prior to a service being given and after it is withdrawn. Such tasks include the maintenance of audit trails and the mounting of the user´s home directory. The session management group is important as it provides both an opening and closing hook for modules to affect the services available to a user. 



service-name   module-type           control-flag   module-path   arguments
服务名称           模块类型(管理组)控制标志      模块路径       模块参数


  • required; 需要的,这表明此模块返回成功值对于整个module-type的成功是必要的. 此模块的返回失败并不会传回给用户,直到剩下的模块(同样module-type)都执行过.
  • requisite; 必要的,类似 required, 只不过, 当这类模块返回失败时,整个控制会立刻回到应用程序. 返回值同第一个需要的或必要的模块返回的失败相同.
  • sufficient; 充分的,与requisite恰恰相反,这模块返回的成功会被认为已经 充分满足Linux-PAM 库确认这类模块(module-type)是成功的条件. 如果没有先前的requisite 模块返回了失败,那么不再会有其它'堆叠' 的模块被呼叫. (注意, 这种情况下,随后的requisite 模块就不会 被呼叫.). 这模块返回的失败不会看作是致命的错误而至影响应用程序从这module-type 得到成功的结果.
  • optional; 可选的,正如这名字一样,此control-flag 致使模块对最终的成功或失败的结果不会产生决定性的影响. 通常用于显示信息,并不在应用方面.




The Linux-PAM System Administrators' Guide
The Linux-PAM System Administrators' Guide(中文版)

linux pam